Sleep Schedules in Adolescents

Sleep Schedules in AdolescentsEarlier this year, during the National Sleep Awareness Week, I wrote a series of posts about the changes in sleep schedules in adolescents. Over the next 3-4 hours, I will repost them all, starting with this one from March 26, 2006. Also check my more recent posts on the subject here and here


I am glad to see that there is more and more interest in and awareness of sleep research. Just watch Sanjay Gupta on CNN or listen to the recent segment on Weekend America on NPR.
At the same time, I am often alarmed at the levels of ignorance still rampant in the general population, and even more the negative social connotations of sleep as an indicator of laziness.
Nothing pains me more than when I see educators (in comments) revealing such biases in regards to their student in the adolescent years. Why do teachers think that their charges are lazy, irresponsible bums, and persist in such belief even when confronted with clear scientific data demonstrating that sleep phase in adolescents is markedly delayed in comparison to younger and older people?
The shift in sleep-phase of adolescents is one of the best documented and most studied phenomena in human chronobiology. If you dig through my ClockNews category, you’ll see that almost every issue has something about adolescent sleep patterns. My first and still most popular post here addresses this phenomenon in some detail (as well as some advice), especially this sweet paper that came out a couple of years ago (follow the references within or search MedLine, Web of Science or Google Scholar for more information).
a1%20end%20of%20adolescence.jpg
In short, presumably under the influence of the sudden surge of sex steroid hormones (and my own research gently touches on this), the circadian clock phase-advances in teen years. It persists in this state until one is almost 30 years old. After that, it settles into its adult pattern. Of course, we are talking about human populations – you can surely give me an anecdote about someone who does not follow this pattern. That’s fine. Of course there are exceptions, as there is vast genetic (and thus phenotypic) variation in human populations. This does not in any way diminish the findings of population studies.
Everyone, from little children, through teens and young adults to elderly, belongs to one of the ‘chronotypes’. You can be a more or less extreme lark (phase-advanced, tend to wake up and fall asleep early), a more or less extreme owl (phase-delayed, tend to wake up and fall asleep late). You can be something in between – some kind of “median” (I don’t want to call this normal, because the whole spectrum is normal) chronotype.
Along a different continuum, one can be very rigid (usually the extreme larks find it really difficult to adjust to work schedules that do not fit their clocks), or quite flexible (people who find it easy to work night-shifts or rotating shifts and tend to remain in such jobs long after their colleagues with less flexible clocks have quit).
No matter where you are on these continua, once you hit puberty your clock will phase-delay. If you were an owl to begin with, you will become a more extreme owl for about a dozen years. If you are an extreme lark, you’ll be a less extreme lark. In the late 20s, your clock will gradually go back to your baseline chronotype and retain it for the rest of your life.
The important thing to remember is that chronotypes are not social constructs (although work-hours and school-hours are). No amount of bribing or threatening can make an adolescent fall asleep early. Don’t blame video games or TV. Even if you take all of these away (and you should that late at night, and replace them with books) and switch off the lights, the poor teen will toss and turn and not fall asleep until midnight or later, thus getting only about 4-6 hours of sleep until it is time to get up and go to school again.
More and more school districts around the country, especially in more enlightened and progressive areas are heeding the science and making a rational decision to follow the science and adjust the school-start times accordingly. Instead of forcing teenagers to wake up at their biological midnight (circa 6am) to go to school, where invariably they sleep through the first two morning classes, more and more schools are adopting the reverse busing schedule: elementary schools first (around 7:50am), middle schools next (around 8:20am) and high schools last (around 8:50am). I hope all schools around the country eventually adopt this schedule and quit torturing the teens and then blaming the teens for sleeping in class and making bad grades.
No matter how much you may wish to think that everything in human behavior originates in culture, biology will trump you every now and then, and then you should better pay attention, especially if the life, health, happiness and educational quality of other people depends on your decisions.
Related posts:
Sleep Schedules in Adolescents
ClockNews – Adolescent Sleep
More on sleep in adolescents
When Should Schools Start in the morning?
All Politics Is Local
Adolescent Sleep Schedule
Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Sleep (But Were Too Afraid To Ask)
Nicotine and Depression
Books: “Snooze…Or Lose! – 10 “No-War” Ways To Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits” by Helene A. Emsellem, MD

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4 responses to “Sleep Schedules in Adolescents

  1. Huzzah to this article. I’m 24, and I’m definitely median/owl. When I was younger, I had no problem going to bed and waking up at a “normal” or earlyish time. Once I hit teens, I started staying up later and waking up later when allowed. My brother and I worked a job from 5->11 for quite awhile and thoroughly enjoyed the schedule. I find, in grad school, that I can’t really wake up well until 8.30 or 9 but find it quite easy to stay up until 1 doing work. As long as I’ve slept past 9am, I generally feel well rested even if I stayed up later than usual.

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  3. Thank you!
    I’m 18. I almost failed to graduate from high school because I literally could not wake up on time, and almost lost credit due to too many absences. The absences and falling asleep in class didn’t help my grades or my teachers’ opinions of me, either. In my first year of college, I signed up for later classes (delaying my wake-up time by several hours) and have a 4.0, not to mention better attendance.
    I’m definitely an owl. I really wish my teachers and parents had understood this.

  4. I have sleep records detailing my wake/sleep cycle for many, many years. I always had “delayed phase sleep disorder” and in my teen years it became staggeringly delayed (up to 2 hours a night. 18/9 was a typical cycle). I endured years and years and years of “sleepyhead” comments and plenty of people presuming that I had been drunk the night before and all of the other things that “Night owls” endure. As well as all the well-intentioned “warm milk” advice. In my case, it has lead to a TOTAL separation from society and some real resentment on my part.
    The most successful way I have of describing my situation to people with more easily reset “biological clocks” and less of a phase variation is to say, “What time did you have to wake up and go to work today?”
    “7 am”
    “Okay,” I say, “Now, what if you had to get up at 5 am to go to work tomorrow?”
    “I guess I could do it, but I’d be tired.”
    “Yeah, you would… now imagine that on Wednesday, you had to get up at 3 am.”
    “What? That doesn’t make any sense.”
    “Thursday, 1 am. and Friday, you had to get up at 11 pm on Thursday. And then on Monday, you’d have to get up at 5 pm and go to work.”
    “Oh well, that would be easy, It’d be easy to be awake at 5 pm…”
    Which is to say, that no one gets it. And they absolutely cannot shake the notion that all sleep disorders are “insomnia” and due entirely to a lack of “discipline”. I always propose that my well-meaning friends could understand my predicament if they used their superior “discipline” to go to sleep two hours earlier every night…