Lots of news around PLoS these days

First big piece of news is the new PLoS Hub for Biodiversity – see the details on the PLoS Blog.
Second big piece of news is the New PLoS ONE Collection – Biodiversity of Saba Bank – the collection homepage, where all the articles are collected, is here and the overview article is here.
There is some movement on The Federal Research Public Access Act (FRPAA) in Congress. Keep up with the updates at the The Alliance for Taxpayer Access site, the Scholarly Publishing & Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) site, or by following PLoS on Twitter.
There is ten days left for the April Blog Pick of the Month – keep those blog posts coming!
If you are not in a habit of checking the everyONE blog (and you should), note that I compile a weekly summary of the best blog and media coverage of PLoS ONE papers. See, for example, the collections of links for this week, last week and the week before it. As I noted before, the coverage by blogs is better and easier to collect (as bloggers link and cite the papers) than the coverage from MSM. Eh, one day they’ll learn, I hope…
I also occasionally choose a particularly cool image from a PLoS ONE paper and use it as a starting point (or center-piece) for a blog post about the paper. See the last two such posts here and here.
Finally, there are a number of new articles published in four out of seven journals yesterday and today and under the fold are those I find personally interesting or bloggable. As always, you should rate the articles, post notes and comments and send trackbacks when you blog about the papers. You can now also easily place articles on various social services (CiteULike, Mendeley, Connotea, Stumbleupon, Facebook and Digg) with just one click. Here are my own picks for the week – you go and look for your own favourites:

Saving Saba Bank: Policy Implications of Biodiversity Studies:

Saba Bank has always been an area of special importance to the neighboring island of Saba in the Netherlands Antilles. Sabans traditionally fished on the Bank as far back as 1907, but increasing foreign fishing pressures on the Bank in the 1970s and 1980s forced many Saban fishermen out. Concerns were compounded by the suspicion that shipping was also damaging the benthic habitat of the bank. Fishery legislation, enacted in 1996, brought an end to unlicensed fishing and established Coast Guard enforcement on the Bank, but also led to protests from neighboring countries that previously fished on the Bank.
Research was necessary to support the need for protection. Review of available research of Saba Bank and rapid biological assessments and fisheries surveys since 1996 emphasized the richness of Saba Bank’s biodiversity and the need for protection of fisheries stocks. The national nature policy plan recognized this and encouraged further research to base conservation measures on.
Recent biological surveys of corals, fishes, and algae presented in this collection of articles emphasized habitat heterogeneity and the relative richness of the marine flora and fauna. These assessments formed the basis for a management plan to protect Saba Bank’s biodiversity and a draft proposal to the International Maritime Organization (IMO) seeking Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) status for the Bank. The intention of the PSSA proposal is to protect the benthic habitat on Saba Bank from anchor damage. This paper serves to provide the context for the results of the recent biodiversity surveys of Saba Bank. It is hoped that this collection will serve as a knowledge baseline and engender further research in the area.

Environmental Factors Determining the Epidemiology and Population Genetic Structure of the Bacillus cereus Group in the Field:

Bacillus thuringiensis is one of the most useful bacteria in insect pest management: it is used as an environmentally friendly biopesticide and its insecticidal toxins are incorporated into genetically modified crops. Concerns for its ongoing economic exploitation include the rapidity with which insects can evolve resistance to its toxins and whether B. thuringiensis is ecologically and genetically distinct from closely related strains that cause infections in humans and domestic animals. We found that natural bacterial populations in soil and on cabbage leaves were dominated by an insect-pathogen specialist genotype, and this genotype was better than its close relatives at establishing populations on leaves where its hosts were likely to be feeding. Spraying microbial pesticides and the addition of insect hosts increased the proportion of insect-pathogen specialists in the bacterial population, confirming that application of these biopesticides is a safe means of insect control. Populations of B. thuringiensis were transient on plant material, suggesting that selective pressure for resistance can be similarly transient. However, the genotype that dominates the natural community has been economically exploited more than any other, and selection for resistance to this strain may have occurred in natural populations of insects prior to the use of B. thuringiensis in pest control.

Using Simulation Models to Evaluate Ape Nest Survey Techniques:

Conservationists frequently use nest count surveys to estimate great ape population densities, yet the accuracy and precision of the resulting estimates are difficult to assess. We used mathematical simulations to model nest building behavior in an orangutan population to compare the quality of the population size estimates produced by two of the commonly used nest count methods, the ‘marked recount method’ and the ‘matrix method.’ We found that when observers missed even small proportions of nests in the first survey, the marked recount method produced large overestimates of the population size. Regardless of observer reliability, the matrix method produced substantial overestimates of the population size when surveying effort was low. With high observer reliability, both methods required surveying approximately 0.26% of the study area (0.26 km2 out of 100 km2 in this simulation) to achieve an accurate estimate of population size; at or above this sampling effort both methods produced estimates within 33% of the true population size 50% of the time. Both methods showed diminishing returns at survey efforts above 0.26% of the study area. The use of published nest decay estimates derived from other sites resulted in widely varying population size estimates that spanned nearly an entire order of magnitude. The marked recount method proved much better at detecting population declines, detecting 5% declines nearly 80% of the time even in the first year of decline. These results highlight the fact that neither nest surveying method produces highly reliable population size estimates with any reasonable surveying effort, though either method could be used to obtain a gross population size estimate in an area. Conservation managers should determine if the quality of these estimates are worth the money and effort required to produce them, and should generally limit surveying effort to 0.26% of the study area, unless specific management goals require more intensive sampling. Using site- and time- specific nest decay rates (or the marked recount method) are essential for accurate population size estimation. Marked recount survey methods with sufficient sampling effort hold promise for detecting population declines.

Chemotactic Response and Adaptation Dynamics in Escherichia coli:

Bacterial chemotaxis is a paradigm for sensory systems, and thus has attracted immense interest from biologists and modelers alike. Using this pathway, cells can sense chemical molecules in their environment, and bias their movement towards nutrients and away from toxins. To avoid over- or understimulation of the signaling pathway, receptors adapt to current external conditions by covalent receptor modification, ultimately allowing cells to chemotax over a wide range of background concentrations. While the robustness and precision in adaptation was previously explained, we quantify the dynamics of adaptation, important for cell memory and behavior, as well as noise filtering in the pathway. Specifically, we study the intracellular signaling response and subsequent adaptation to concentration step changes in attractant chemicals. We combine measurements of signaling in living cells with a dynamic model for strongly coupled receptors, even including the effects of concentration flow in the experiment. Using a novel way of summarizing time-dependent data, we derive a new adaptation model, predicting additional layers of feedback regulation. As a consequence, adaptation to sudden exposure of unfavorable conditions is very fast, which may be useful for a quick reorientation and escape of the cell.

Motion Sickness, Stress and the Endocannabinoid System:

A substantial number of individuals are at risk for the development of motion sickness induced nausea and vomiting (N&V) during road, air or sea travel. Motion sickness can be extremely stressful but the neurobiologic mechanisms leading to motion sickness are not clear. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) represents an important neuromodulator of stress and N&V. Inhibitory effects of the ECS on N&V are mediated by endocannabinoid-receptor activation. We studied the activity of the ECS in human volunteers (n = 21) during parabolic flight maneuvers (PFs). During PFs, microgravity conditions (<10−2 g) are generated for approximately 22 s which results in a profound kinetic stimulus. Blood endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG) were measured from blood samples taken in-flight before start of the parabolic maneuvers, after 10, 20, and 30 parabolas, in-flight after termination of PFs and 24 h later. Volunteers who developed acute motion sickness (n = 7) showed significantly higher stress scores but lower endocannabinoid levels during PFs. After 20 parabolas, blood anandamide levels had dropped significantly in volunteers with motion sickness (from 0.39±0.40 to 0.22±0.25 ng/ml) but increased in participants without the condition (from 0.43±0.23 to 0.60±0.38 ng/ml) resulting in significantly higher anandamide levels in participants without motion sickness (p = 0.02). 2-AG levels in individuals with motion sickness were low and almost unchanged throughout the experiment but showed a robust increase in participants without motion sickness. Cannabinoid-receptor 1 (CB1) but not cannabinoid-receptor 2 (CB2) mRNA expression in leucocytes 4 h after the experiment was significantly lower in volunteers with motion sickness than in participants without N&V. These findings demonstrate that stress and motion sickness in humans are associated with impaired endocannabinoid activity. Enhancing ECS signaling may represent an alternative therapeutic strategy for motion sickness in individuals who do not respond to currently available treatments.

Genome-Wide Copy Number Variation in Epilepsy: Novel Susceptibility Loci in Idiopathic Generalized and Focal Epilepsies:

Epilepsy, a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, affects up to 3% of the population. In some cases, the epilepsy has a clear cause such as an abnormality in the brain or a head injury. However, in many cases there is no obvious cause. Numerous studies have shown that genetic factors are important in these types of epilepsy, but although several epilepsy genes are known, we can still only identify the genetic cause in a very small fraction of cases. In order to identify new genes that contribute to the genetic causes of epilepsy, we searched the human genome for deletions (missing copies) and duplications (extra copies) of genes in ~500 patients with epilepsy that are not found in control individuals. Using this approach, we identified several large deletions that are important in at least 3% of epilepsy cases. Furthermore, we found new candidate genes, some of which are also thought to play a role in other related disorders such as autism and intellectual disability. These genes are candidates for further studies in patients with epilepsy.

Rapid Assessment of Stony Coral Richness and Condition on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles:

The benthic habitats of Saba Bank (17°25′N, 63°30′W) are at risk from maritime traffic, especially oil tankers (e.g., anchoring). To mitigate this risk, information is needed on the biodiversity and location of habitats to develop a zone use plan. A rapid survey to document the biodiversity of macro-algae, sponges, corals and fishes was conducted. Here we report on the richness and condition of stony coral species at 18 select sites, and we test for the effects of bottom type, depth, and distance from platform edge. Species richness was visually assessed by roving scuba diver with voucher specimens of each species collected. Coral tissue was examined for bleaching and diseases. Thirty-three coral species were documented. There were no significant differences in coral composition among bottom types or depth classes (ANOSIM, P>0.05). There was a significant difference between sites (ANOSIM, P<0.05) near and far from the platform edge. The number of coral species observed ranged from zero and one in algal dominated habitats to 23 at a reef habitat on the southern edge of the Bank. Five reef sites had stands of Acropora cervicornis, a critically endangered species on the IUCN redlist. Bleaching was evident at 82% of the sites assessed with 43 colonies bleached. Only three coral colonies were observed to have disease. Combining our findings with that of other studies, a total of 43 species have been documented from Saba Bank. The coral assemblage on the bank is representative and typical of those found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Although our findings will help develop effective protection, more information is needed on Saba Bank to create a comprehensive zone use plan. Nevertheless, immediate action is warranted to protect the diverse coral reef habitats documented here, especially those containing A. cervicornis.

Influence of Low-Level Stimulus Features, Task Dependent Factors, and Spatial Biases on Overt Visual Attention:

In our lifetime we make about 5 billion eye movements. Yet our knowledge about what determines where we look at is surprisingly sketchy. Some traditional approaches assume that gaze is guided by simple image properties like local contrast (low-level features). Recent arguments emphasize the influence of tasks (high-level features) and motor constraints (spatial bias). The relative importance of these factors is still a topic of debate. In this study, subjects view and classify natural scenery and faces while their eye movements are recorded. The stimuli are composed of small image patches. For each of these patches we derive a measure for low-level features and spatial bias. Utilizing the subjects’ classification responses, we additionally derive a measure reflecting the information content of a patch with respect to the classification task (high-level features). We show that the effect of spatial bias is highest, that high-level features are a close runner-up, and that low-level features have, on average, a smaller influence. Remarkably, the different contributions are mostly independent. Hence, all three measures contribute to the guidance of eye movements and have to be considered in a model of human visual attention.

Preliminary Assessment of Sponge Biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles:

Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity.

Chlamydia pneumoniae Is Genetically Diverse in Animals and Appears to Have Crossed the Host Barrier to Humans on (At Least) Two Occasions:

Chlamydia pneumoniae is an intracellular bacterial pathogen with an extremely diverse host range (humans, amphibians, reptiles and marsupials). We selected 23 target genes in order to investigate genetic diversity: seven of these had been lost or gained by C. pneumoniae, a further six were conserved, four were polymorphic (defined by greater than 20 SNPs per 1 kbp; in this study), and six were truncated or length polymorphic in one strain or the other. Our research highlights that C. pneumoniae animal isolates are much more genetically diverse than C. pneumoniae human isolates, and have crossed the host barrier to humans on at least two occasions. Our study provides new insights into the evolution of this complex pathogen.

Reef Fishes of Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles: Assemblage Structure across a Gradient of Habitat Types:

Saba Bank is a 2,200 km2 submerged carbonate platform in the northeastern Caribbean Sea off Saba Island, Netherlands Antilles. The presence of reef-like geomorphic features and significant shelf edge coral development on Saba Bank have led to the conclusion that it is an actively growing, though wholly submerged, coral reef atoll. However, little information exists on the composition of benthic communities or associated reef fish assemblages of Saba Bank. We selected a 40 km2 area of the bank for an exploratory study. Habitat and reef fish assemblages were investigated in five shallow-water benthic habitat types that form a gradient from Saba Bank shelf edge to lagoon. Significant coral cover was restricted to fore reef habitat (average cover 11.5%) and outer reef flat habitat (2.4%) and declined to near zero in habitats of the central lagoon zone. Macroalgae dominated benthic cover in all habitats (average cover: 32.5 – 48.1%) but dominant algal genera differed among habitats. A total of 97 fish species were recorded. The composition of Saba Bank fish assemblages differed among habitat types. Highest fish density and diversity occurred in the outer reef flat, fore reef and inner reef flat habitats. Biomass estimates for commercially valued species in the reef zone (fore reef and reef flat habitats) ranged between 52 and 83 g/m2. The composition of Saba Bank fish assemblages reflects the absence of important nursery habitats, as well as the effects of past fishing. The relatively high abundance of large predatory fish (i.e. groupers and sharks), which is generally considered an indicator of good ecosystem health for tropical reef systems, shows that an intact trophic network is still present on Saba Bank.

The Mating Type Locus (MAT) and Sexual Reproduction of Cryptococcus heveanensis: Insights into the Evolution of Sex and Sex-Determining Chromosomal Regions in Fungi:

Comparative genomics provides an approach to understand evolution of sex-determining regions in animals and fungi. One example is the unusual mating-type (MAT) locus of pathogenic Cryptococcus species (>100 kb, >20 genes). The fungal MAT locus is a model for gene cluster evolution and shares features with sex chromosomes of plants/animals. In previous studies with C. neoformans/C. gattii, a model for this unusual locus was proposed in which two ancestral unlinked loci were fused into one contiguous locus. C. heveanensis represents an evolutionary window to test this model, since it is related to but distinct from pathogenic Cryptococcus species. The organization of MAT in two probably unlinked loci in C. heveanensis provides evidence supporting the model and additional novel insights into how serial gene acquisitions created evolutionary strata. We also discovered an extant sexual cycle for C. heveanensis and correlated fertility with MAT alleles. These findings provide direct experimental validation of the central tenants of sex-chromosome evolution originally proposed by Ohno involving sex determinants arising on autosomes, formation of gene clusters with coherent functions in sex, and mechanisms by which specialized recombinationally suppressed genomic regions expand to capture an entire chromosome as a sex chromosome.

An Environment-Wide Association Study (EWAS) on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and other chronic diseases are caused by a complex combination of many genetic and environmental factors. Few methods are available to comprehensively associate specific physical environmental factors with disease. We conducted a pilot Environmental-Wide Association Study (EWAS), in which epidemiological data are comprehensively and systematically interpreted in a manner analogous to a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS). We performed multiple cross-sectional analyses associating 266 unique environmental factors with clinical status for T2D defined by fasting blood sugar (FBG) concentration ≥126 mg/dL. We utilized available Centers for Disease Control (CDC) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cohorts from years 1999 to 2006. Within cohort sample numbers ranged from 503 to 3,318. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and an estimate of socioeconomic status (SES). As in GWAS, multiple comparisons were controlled and significant findings were validated with other cohorts. We discovered significant associations for the pesticide-derivative heptachlor epoxide (adjusted OR in three combined cohorts of 1.7 for a 1 SD change in exposure amount; p<0.001), and the vitamin γ-tocopherol (adjusted OR 1.5; p<0.001). Higher concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) such as PCB170 (adjusted OR 2.2; p<0.001) were also found. Protective factors associated with T2D included β-carotenes (adjusted OR 0.6; p<0.001). Despite difficulty in ascertaining causality, the potential for novel factors of large effect associated with T2D justify the use of EWAS to create hypotheses regarding the broad contribution of the environment to disease. Even in this study based on prior collected epidemiological measures, environmental factors can be found with effect sizes comparable to the best loci yet found by GWAS.

Alzheimer’s Disease Amyloid-β Links Lens and Brain Pathology in Down Syndrome:

Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21) is the most common chromosomal disorder and the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability in humans. In DS, triplication of chromosome 21 invariably includes the APP gene (21q21) encoding the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) amyloid precursor protein (APP). Triplication of the APP gene accelerates APP expression leading to cerebral accumulation of APP-derived amyloid-β peptides (Aβ), early-onset AD neuropathology, and age-dependent cognitive sequelae. The DS phenotype complex also includes distinctive early-onset cerulean cataracts of unknown etiology. Previously, we reported increased Aβ accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and disease-linked supranuclear cataracts in the ocular lenses of subjects with AD. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that related AD-linked Aβ pathology underlies the distinctive lens phenotype associated with DS. Ophthalmological examinations of DS subjects were correlated with phenotypic, histochemical, and biochemical analyses of lenses obtained from DS, AD, and normal control subjects. Evaluation of DS lenses revealed a characteristic pattern of supranuclear opacification accompanied by accelerated supranuclear Aβ accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and fiber cell cytoplasmic Aβ aggregates (~5 to 50 nm) identical to the lens pathology identified in AD. Peptide sequencing, immunoblot analysis, and ELISA confirmed the identity and increased accumulation of Aβ in DS lenses. Incubation of synthetic Aβ with human lens protein promoted protein aggregation, amyloid formation, and light scattering that recapitulated the molecular pathology and clinical features observed in DS lenses. These results establish the genetic etiology of the distinctive lens phenotype in DS and identify the molecular origin and pathogenic mechanism by which lens pathology is expressed in this common chromosomal disorder. Moreover, these findings confirm increased Aβ accumulation as a key pathogenic determinant linking lens and brain pathology in both DS and AD.

Bisphenol A in Oocytes Leads to Growth Suppression and Altered Stress Performance in Juvenile Rainbow Trout:

Bisphenol A (BPA), used in the manufacture of plastics, is ubiquitously distributed in the aquatic environment. However, the effect of maternal transfer of these xenobiotics on embryonic development and growth is poorly understood in fish. We tested the hypothesis that BPA in eggs, mimicking maternal transfer, impact development, growth and stress performance in juveniles of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout oocytes were exposed to 0, 30 and 100 µg.mL−1 BPA for 3 h in ovarian fluid, followed by fertilization. The embryos were maintained in clean water and sampled temporally over 156-days post-fertilization (dpf), and juveniles were sampled at 400-dpf. The egg BPA levels declined steadily after exposure and were undetectable after 21- dpf. Oocyte exposure to BPA led to a delay in hatching and yolk absorption and a consistently lower body mass over 152-dpf. The growth impairment, especially in the high BPA group, correlated with higher growth hormone (GH) content and lower GH receptors gene expression. Also, mRNA abundances of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 and IGF-2) and their receptors were suppressed in the BPA treated groups. The juvenile fish grown from the BPA-enriched eggs had lower body mass and showed perturbations in plasma cortisol and glucose response to an acute stressor. BPA accumulation in eggs, prior to fertilization, leads to hatching delays, growth suppression and altered stress response in juvenile trout. The somatotropic axis appears to be a key target for BPA impact during early embryogenesis, leading to long term growth and stress performance defects in fish.

A New and Fast Technique to Generate Offspring after Germ Cells Transplantation in Adult Fish: The Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Model:

Germ cell transplantation results in fertile recipients and is the only available approach to functionally investigate the spermatogonial stem cell biology in mammals and probably in other vertebrates. In the current study, we describe a novel non-surgical methodology for efficient spermatogonial transplantation into the testes of adult tilapia (O. niloticus), in which endogenous spermatogenesis had been depleted with the cytostatic drug busulfan. Using two different tilapia strains, the production of fertile spermatozoa with donor characteristics was demonstrated in adult recipient, which also sired progeny with the donor genotype. Also, after cryopreservation tilapia spermatogonial cells were able to differentiate to spermatozoa in the testes of recipient fishes. These findings indicate that injecting germ cells directly into adult testis facilitates and enable fast generation of donor spermatogenesis and offspring compared to previously described methods. Therefore, a new suitable methodology for biotechnological investigations in aquaculture was established, with a high potential to improve the production of commercially valuable fish, generate transgenic animals and preserve endangered fish species.

Evolutionary Characters, Phenotypes and Ontologies: Curating Data from the Systematic Biology Literature:

The wealth of phenotypic descriptions documented in the published articles, monographs, and dissertations of phylogenetic systematics is traditionally reported in a free-text format, and it is therefore largely inaccessible for linkage to biological databases for genetics, development, and phenotypes, and difficult to manage for large-scale integrative work. The Phenoscape project aims to represent these complex and detailed descriptions with rich and formal semantics that are amenable to computation and integration with phenotype data from other fields of biology. This entails reconceptualizing the traditional free-text characters into the computable Entity-Quality (EQ) formalism using ontologies. We used ontologies and the EQ formalism to curate a collection of 47 phylogenetic studies on ostariophysan fishes (including catfishes, characins, minnows, knifefishes) and their relatives with the goal of integrating these complex phenotype descriptions with information from an existing model organism database (zebrafish, http://zfin.org). We developed a curation workflow for the collection of character, taxonomic and specimen data from these publications. A total of 4,617 phenotypic characters (10,512 states) for 3,449 taxa, primarily species, were curated into EQ formalism (for a total of 12,861 EQ statements) using anatomical and taxonomic terms from teleost-specific ontologies (Teleost Anatomy Ontology and Teleost Taxonomy Ontology) in combination with terms from a quality ontology (Phenotype and Trait Ontology). Standards and guidelines for consistently and accurately representing phenotypes were developed in response to the challenges that were evident from two annotation experiments and from feedback from curators. The challenges we encountered and many of the curation standards and methods for improving consistency that we developed are generally applicable to any effort to represent phenotypes using ontologies. This is because an ontological representation of the detailed variations in phenotype, whether between mutant or wildtype, among individual humans, or across the diversity of species, requires a process by which a precise combination of terms from domain ontologies are selected and organized according to logical relations. The efficiencies that we have developed in this process will be useful for any attempt to annotate complex phenotypic descriptions using ontologies. We also discuss some ramifications of EQ representation for the domain of systematics.

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